David Birch is a global expert on electronic transactions having specialized in this sector for many years. Described at the Oxford Internet Institute as “one of Britain’s most acute observers of the internet and social networks”, in The Telegraph newspaper as “one of the world’s leading experts on digital money”, in The Independent newspaper as a “grade-A geek”, by the Centre for the Study of Financial Innovation as “one of the most user-friendly of the UK’s uber-techies” and in Financial World as “mad”, Birch is an internationally-recognized thought leader in digital identity and digital money.David Birch has lectured extensively on the impact of new information and communications technologies and contributed to publications ranging from the UK Parliamentary IT Review to Prospect magazine. He wrote a Guardian newspaper column for many years. He is a media commentator on electronic business issues and has appeared regularly on BBC television and radio, Sky and CNN. His most recent book Before Babylon, Beyond Bitcoin: From money we understand to money that understands us was published in 2017 with a foreword by Andrew Haldane, Chief Economist at the Bank of England. In the London School of Economics (LSE) Review of Books, it was described as a timely and illuminating contribution which should be widely read by graduate students of finance, financial law, and related topics, as well as policymakers involved in financial regulation. The London Review of Books called his previous book Identity is the New Money (2014) fresh, original, wide- ranging and the best book on general issues around new forms of money.